Individual and collective sports activities are expressions of our culture, and sports such as soccer today arouse the passions of large human groups. With this, athletes have been increasing the development of their physical abilities, which allows them to lower and impose new records in different sports.
Doping is the use of prohibited substances or methods in sport in order to obtain better performance. Doping is immoral because sporting triumphs are obtained using forbidden means, it puts the health of the athlete at risk and affects the precepts of fair competition in sport.
The International Olympic Committee,
followed by other international sports organizations, such as FIFA and other federations, prohibited the use of doping substances, established lists of prohibited substances in 해외축구 중계사이트 and anti-doping control with standardized methodology for taking samples, selecting athletes that they must pass anti-doping control within the competitions (control of all drugs) and during training (mainly looking for the consumption of anabolic steroids), analytical methods, and sanctions for athletes who violate the doping rules.
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA-AMA) has published
the list of prohibited substances in sport, classifying them into nine groups: S1) anabolic steroids, S2) peptide hormones, growth factors, related substances and mimetics, S3) beta 2 agonists ( adrenergic agents), S4) hormonal and metabolic modulators, S5) diuretics and masking agents, and the agents prohibited in competitions: S6) stimulants, S7) narcotics, S8) cannabinoids, S9) glucocorticoids.
For anti-doping control, the athlete selected in competition
must attend the anti-doping laboratory and issue two urine samples that are kept in two containers (Sample A and Sample B), which are sealed and sealed in the presence of the athlete and the drug control official. doping. The samples are then sent to the corresponding doping control analytical laboratory. The procedures for taking samples, receiving and sending samples at an international level to the laboratory are regulated and regulated. Urine samples are analyzed in a relatively short period of 2 to 3 days, using advanced chromatography techniques: HPLC-MS and gas chromatography with Tandem mass detection (GC- Tandem MS), which are capable of detecting more than 600 substances prohibited and the like.
Accredited laboratories require modern,
calibrated equipment and highly reproducible standardized methods. Mass teams need to have libraries of prohibited substances and their metabolites in urine, to speed up detection, which allowsthe qualitative determination of the prohibited substance, thereby assuming the consumption of the prohibited substance by the athlete and issuing an “adverse analytical finding”. Once the adverse analytical result is known, the athlete can request the analysis of the B sample (Countersample). If the result is not ratified, the final result is negative doping and the preventive sanction is lifted. If the analytical result ratifies the substance detected in the first analysis, the conclusion is positive for doping, and temporary disqualification of up to four years or permanent disqualification is applied in cases of recidivism.
In Peru, coca leaf is offered freely in the form of filter matte,
whose consumption -because it contains cocaine- is prohibited in sports. The main metabolite of cocaine in the human body is Benzoylecgonine, which can be detected in the athlete’s urine between three hours and four days after ingestion or administration by any means (coca tea, coca flour, base paste). smoked, smoked crack, snorted cocaine hydrochloride). There is a great risk for athletes in Peru, since accidental consumption or not, leads to the detection of the metabolite in the urine with serious consequences for the athlete. The training of athletes, team and national federation doctors and support staff must be increased in order to prevent this risk.